What are ESG and Sustainability Data and Ratings?

ESG stands for Environmental, Social, and Governance, and it refers to a set of criteria that investors use to evaluate a company’s performance in these three areas. Sustainability data and ratings are related concepts that involve assessing a company’s impact on the environment, its social responsibility, and the quality of its governance practices.

Environmental (E):

This aspect focuses on a company’s environmental impact. It includes factors such as carbon emissions, energy efficiency, water usage, waste management, and the company’s overall approach to environmental sustainability. Investors look for companies that are actively working to reduce their ecological footprint.

Social (S):

    • The social component evaluates a company’s relationships with its employees, customers, suppliers, and the communities in which it operates. Social factors include employment practices, diversity and inclusion, employee well-being, community engagement, and product safety. Companies that prioritise fair employment practices and social responsibility tend to score well in this category.

Governance (G):

    • Governance considers the company’s internal policies, leadership structure, shareholder rights, and overall corporate governance practices. Factors include the composition and independence of the board of directors, executive compensation, and the transparency of financial reporting. Strong governance is often associated with effective risk management and ethical business practices.

Sustainability Data:

  • This refers to the information and metrics that companies disclose regarding their environmental, social, and governance practices. This data helps investors and other stakeholders understand a company’s commitment to sustainable and responsible business practices.


  • ESG ratings are numerical or qualitative assessments assigned to companies based on their performance in the environmental, social, and governance dimensions. Several third-party organisations specialise in evaluating and rating companies based on ESG criteria. These ratings are used by investors to make informed decisions about incorporating ESG factors into their investment strategies.

Major ESG rating agencies include MSCI, Sustainalytics, and ISS ESG, among others. Each agency may use slightly different methodologies to assess ESG performance, leading to variations in ratings for the same company across different platforms. The aim is to provide investors with a standardised and comparable measure of a company’s ESG practices.

Companies with higher ESG ratings are often seen as more sustainable, responsible, and better equipped to navigate emerging environmental and social challenges. As awareness of ESG issues continues to grow, more investors are incorporating ESG considerations into their decision-making processes.